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This small basic photographic course is structured in some short articles that introduce the basic information and techniques in order to start experimenting with the art of photography.
The topics we are going to investigate are the following:

  1. The focal lenght
  2. The focus
  3. The aperture of the diaphragm
  4. The depth of field
  5. The shutter and the time scale
  6. ISO scale
Monday, 01 January 2018 14:46

The focal length

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One of the advantages of SLR cameras is that it can use a wide range of lenses with different focal lengths and that you can choose the one that best suits the composition you want to create. But what is the focal length? First of all it is measured in mm and represents the distance between the optical center of the lens and the film plane or the sensor on the digital machines, to which a point placed at infinity is focused. The angle of view of the lens depends on the focal length and the sensor size. The lenses with a focal length between 35mm and 50mm, with 35mm sensors, offer an angle of view almost equivalent to the actual field of view, so they are called normal focal lengths. The lenses with focal lengths exceeding 70mm are called telephoto lenses and allow to enlarge the subjects. The telephoto lenses are very useful in sports photography, nature and for close-up portraits. The lenses of less than 35mm are wide-angle…
Monday, 01 January 2018 14:46

The focus

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The focus of the subject in a photo shoot is one of the basic points that allows the photographer to take good pictures and customize the composition of the shot as desired. In general, a photograph is considered technically successful when it is clear, that is when it is perfectly in focus. The modern cameras are equipped with autofocus very valid and fast, but the focus management software is not always able to focus correctly on the subject or the whole picture so it is essential to understand the operation of the automatic system of focusing of our SLR so you can intervene manually if necessary. First of all, let's see how the focus works on a DSLR.Focusing means intervening on the lens / sensor distance, to ensure that the lens projects a clear image of the subject to be photographed on the sensor, in particular checking that:When the subject is far from the point of recovery, the lens causes the distance to decrease between lens and sensor;When the subject…
Monday, 01 January 2018 14:46

The aperture of the diaphragm

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The diaphragm is located inside the lens and consists of a series of slats that tighten and widen depending on the lens aperture required by the photographer and actually serves to regulate the amount of light that must pass through the lens lens.Adjustment of the aperture of the diaphragm is an important parameter to correctly expose and customize the shot. Setting this parameter allows to vary the amount of light that the sensor receives during the shutter opening time. The measurement of this parameter is made by numbers, preceded by the letter "f", which represent the ratio between the aperture of the diaphragm and the focal length of the lens, the smaller the larger the aperture and the diaphragm the other way around. For example, a diaphragm aperture equal to f2 is greater than an aperture f22, it follows that with the same time interval with f2 steps a greater amount of light with respect to f22. The maximum aperture value of diaphragm is also a quality certification parameter of…
Monday, 01 January 2018 14:46

The depth of field

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Knowing and using depth of field (PDC) in photography is essential. Knowing how to perfectly control the extension of the sharpness plane allows the photographer to sharpen the subject of the photo even if arranged on different visual planes and to give the composition a documentative and aesthetically more appreciable value. In this short chapter we try to understand what depth of field is, how to use it in the composition of photography and what are the parameters that influence it. Definition of depth of field (PDC)Taking a cue from Wikipedia we can define the PDC as follows: "In photography, the sharp depth of field or simply the depth of field (abbreviated as PdC or DoF from the English Depth of Field), represents the area in which the objects appear focused in the image.The pdc is in very close relationship with the circles of confusion, depends on the aperture of the diaphragm and the distance between objects and optics, depending on the focus and the angle of view of the lens…
Monday, 01 January 2018 14:46

The shutter and time scale

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In photography, the shutter is the mechanical or electronic device that has the task of checking how long the sensor (in digital cameras) is exposed to light. By making a parallel with the human eye, while the iris represents the diaphragm, the eyelid gives an idea of ​​the shutter. The shutters can be classified into two types: 1. Central obturators 2. Curtain shutters The first type corresponds to all the shutters equipped with lamellae arranged in a radial pattern, similar to those of the diaphragm. The second type is a shutter composed of two surfaces of fabric or metal arranged parallel along the focal plane, which slide vertically forming a slot that allows light to pass. If the time required is slow, the first curtain reaches the end of the stroke and consequently the second part covers the film ending the exposure. In the case of faster times, the second curtain is operated during the stroke of the first, so the film is not exposed simultaneously throughout the frame, but…
Monday, 01 January 2018 14:46

ISO Scale

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In analogue photography with ISO it was indicated the sensitivity to light of the films. The higher the ISO according to the ISO / ASA scale the greater the sensitivity of the film. A more sensitive film allowed to have a faster shutter at the same light. In particular, if with ISO 100 we could shoot in 1/50 of a second, with the same light and aperture, with a 200 ISO film you can use a double speed (1/125). This allowed to have sharper photography because less moves even if more grainy. Even in digital photography, sensitivity is expressed with the ISO scale derived from analog photography. The set ISO speed expresses the sensitivity of the sensor. As in analogue, even in digital photography, doubling the ISO set halves the time required to impress the sensor with the light required for the same aperture. Analogous to the digital ancestors, however, increasing the ISO too much can lead to inconveniences, while in the analogical one the ginning of the image increased,…

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