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Profondità di campo in funzione del diaframmaFor proper exposure of the photo shoot the parameters that can affect it are the exposure time, the opening of the diaphragm and the ISO. Leaving aside the ISO that to date on DSLRs has become a variable parameter to be set for each individual photo, but that in the past depended on film mounted on the machine body, a fundamental parameter to properly set the amount of light that must compose our shot is precisely to define the amount of light that must pass in the chosen time of shooting. How to adjust the lens opening to properly expose the photo we'll address it in the exposure chapter, now let's see what a given diaphragm choice entails.

The opening of the diaphragm is important because it not only allows the possibility of managing the light that impresses our sensor, but its setting also directly affects the depth of the field.

The Depth of Field,to which we will dedicate a specific lesson, we can define it that area of the photo where all the subjects are perfectly in focus and varies as the opening of the diaphragm changes. A greater aperture corresponds to a lower depth of field and vice versa. This means that on a horizontal plane, subjects that will be in focus towards the horizon with an opening such as f2 will have a shorter distance if we set the diaphragm to f22 instead. This phenomenon is very useful in the customization of our shots. In fact if I have a nearby subject that I want to isolate from the rest of the context I can use a very low setting like f2.8 so that the background is completely out of focus. Conversely if I have subjects near and far I have to increase the depth

and use a higher value, such as an f22, being careful not to run into the problem of diffraction that could make my photo unclear. Even at the lowest values, our photos are likely to be a little less detailed and sharp than in the intermediate values of the lens's diaphragm opening range that we're using. Generally the greater sharpness you should have a few stops above the minimum value and a few stops below the maximum value. These, however, are common sense suggestions that then depend on the quality of the material we are using and the experience in the field.
 

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